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The detrimental impact of chronic alcohol consumption on dopamine levels in the brain has been a longstanding challenge. However, a groundbreaking development has emerged: gene therapy has proven effective in replenishing these dopamine levels and curbing the urge for alcohol.

Pioneering American researchers are pioneering a fresh strategy: utilizing gene therapy to recalibrate the dopamine pathway within the brain. As detailed in a recent publication in the esteemed journal Nature Medicine, their investigation unveils a notable achievementβ€”the administration of an experimental treatment to monkeys, resulting in a substantial reduction in alcohol consumption over the span of a year.

The approach employed harnesses the potential of the GDNF protein (glial-derived neurotrophic factor), a key player in promoting dopamine production. The therapy involves the delivery of the gene responsible for GDNF protein synthesis. This gene is encapsulated within modified viruses, which are then inserted into neurons situated in the ventral tegmental areaβ€”an essential region responsible for reward processing and dopamine distribution in the brain.

Commencing with the experiment, the monkeys initially demonstrated voluntary alcohol intake equivalent to approximately nine beverages daily. Remarkably, following a solitary administration of the gene therapy, the monkeys underwent an eight-week abstention phase, succeeded by a four-week period of resumed drinking. This cycle was replicated five times over the course of the year.

Post the initial abstention period, the monkeys that underwent gene therapy exhibited a remarkable 50% reduction in alcohol consumption compared to the control group. As the year unfolded, their alcohol intake plummeted by more than 90% in contrast to the control group.

The application of gene therapy as a means to counter alcohol dependence inevitably invokes ethical considerations, given its influence on brain dynamics and potential implications for individual choices and behavior. Grant, a key figure among the study's authors, posits that this therapeutic avenue should be pursued only as a final recourse, after all other treatment avenues have been exhausted.

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The Megalodon, a legendary prehistoric shark that ruled the oceans millions of years ago, has captivated the imaginations of people for generations. With its massive size, estimated to be up to 60 feet in length, and formidable power, the Megalodon stands as one of the most awe-inspiring creatures ever to have existed. Yet, as technology and scientific understanding have evolved, the question remains: does the Megalodon still exist today, lurking in the depths of our oceans, or is it truly a creature of the past?

The Prehistoric Giant

The Megalodon, scientifically known as Carcharocles megalodon, lived during the Cenozoic era, approximately 23 to 3.6 million years ago. Its name translates to "big tooth," and its teeth are one of the few remnants of this colossal predator that have been discovered. Fossil evidence suggests that this ancient shark had a global distribution and was a dominant apex predator in the oceanic food chain.

The Enigmatic Disappearance

Despite its fierce reputation, the Megalodon eventually vanished from the fossil record around 3.6 million years ago during the Pliocene epoch. Researchers have proposed several theories to explain its disappearance, including changes in climate, loss of prey species, and competition with other predators. One leading hypothesis suggests that the global cooling during the Pliocene era affected its preferred habitats, leading to a decline in population and eventual extinction.

The Megalodon Mythos

Even after its extinction, the Megalodon continued to live on in mythology, folklore, and popular culture. Tales of colossal sea monsters have been recounted by sailors and coastal communities throughout history. In recent times, Hollywood films like "The Meg" have further perpetuated the notion of the Megalodon as a modern-day menace. However, such portrayals are firmly rooted in fiction, with little scientific basis.

The Quest for the Megalodon's Survival

Despite the lack of concrete evidence, some enthusiasts and cryptozoologists argue that the Megalodon may still exist today in the unexplored depths of the world's oceans. They point to reports of massive unidentified creatures and unexplained disappearances of marine life as potential evidence of the Megalodon's survival.

However, these claims are met with skepticism from the scientific community. The absence of credible sightings, genetic evidence, and the fact that large marine creatures typically need substantial food sources to survive pose significant challenges to the idea of a living Megalodon.

The Role of Science and Technology

To determine whether the Megalodon still exists, scientists have utilized advanced tools and techniques to explore the ocean depths. Marine biologists, oceanographers, and paleontologists have conducted extensive studies of marine ecosystems, collected genetic samples, and used remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and deep-sea submersibles to survey unexplored regions.

While these efforts have led to important discoveries and a deeper understanding of marine life, they have not yielded any evidence supporting the existence of the Megalodon in contemporary times.


As intriguing as the idea of a living Megalodon may be, the scientific evidence firmly points to its extinction millions of years ago. The Megalodon remains a fascinating relic of the past, a testament to the incredible diversity and power of ancient marine life. While there are still vast expanses of the oceans yet to be explored, the likelihood of discovering a living Megalodon is exceedingly slim.

As our understanding of marine ecosystems continues to evolve, new discoveries may reveal more about the Megalodon's ancient world and the circumstances that led to its eventual disappearance. Until then, the legend of the Megalodon will continue to inspire curiosity and wonder about the mysteries of our planet's past.

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Water is the essence of life, and staying hydrated is crucial for maintaining optimal health. While plain water is undoubtedly the best choice for hydration, some people enjoy adding a twist to their water by infusing it with soda and lemon. This delightful concoction not only tantalizes the taste buds but also offers a range of health benefits that go beyond regular water consumption. In this article, we'll explore the advantages of drinking water with soda and lemon and how this simple combination can contribute to your overall well-being.

Improved Hydration

The primary benefit of adding soda and lemon to water is that it enhances the taste, making it more appealing and encouraging increased water intake. Many individuals struggle to consume enough water daily due to the lack of flavor. By adding a splash of soda and a hint of lemon, the water becomes more enjoyable, leading to better hydration.

Enhanced Electrolyte Balance

Soda water, also known as carbonated water or sparkling water, contains minerals such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium. These minerals can contribute to maintaining a proper electrolyte balance in the body. Electrolytes are essential for various bodily functions, including nerve impulses, muscle contractions, and fluid balance. By incorporating soda water into your hydration routine, you can support these vital processes.

Β A Source of Vitamin C

Lemons are renowned for their high vitamin C content, a potent antioxidant that supports the immune system, skin health, and aids in collagen production. Adding freshly squeezed lemon juice to your water can provide a natural boost of vitamin C, promoting a stronger immune system and overall well-being.

Alkalizing Properties

Despite their acidic taste, lemons have an alkalizing effect on the body once metabolized. This can help counteract the acidity caused by certain foods and lifestyle factors, potentially reducing the risk of acid-related health issues and promoting better pH balance within the body.

Digestive Aid

Lemon water has been long praised for its digestive benefits. The acidity in lemons may stimulate the production of stomach acid, promoting better digestion. Additionally, lemon water can act as a mild diuretic, helping to flush out toxins from the body and supporting healthy bowel movements.

Weight Management Support

For those aiming to manage their weight, water with soda and lemon can be a helpful addition to their routine. The enhanced taste might discourage the consumption of sugary or calorie-laden beverages, and the natural properties of lemon water may help improve metabolism and digestion, potentially contributing to weight management efforts.


Lemon water is often associated with detoxifying properties. While it's essential to maintain a balanced diet and overall healthy lifestyle for effective detoxification, incorporating lemon water can be a beneficial component. Lemons are rich in antioxidants, which can aid in neutralizing harmful free radicals and supporting the body's natural detoxification processes.


The combination of water with soda and lemon offers a refreshing and healthful alternative to plain water. From improved hydration to digestive support and antioxidant benefits, this delightful duo has much to offer in terms of enhancing your overall well-being. However, it's crucial to remember that while this infused water can complement a healthy lifestyle, it should not be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet and proper hydration practices.

As with any dietary change, it's essential to consider individual preferences, sensitivities, and medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian can provide personalized guidance and ensure that incorporating water with soda and lemon aligns with your unique health goals. So, raise your glass to this revitalizing blend and toast to a healthier, tastier way of staying hydrated!

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Robert Oppenheimer, a renowned American physicist, is a figure of immense significance in the world of science, particularly in the development of the atomic bomb during World War II. Known as the "father of the atomic bomb," Oppenheimer's contributions to the Manhattan Project have had far-reaching consequences, shaping the course of history and the global geopolitical landscape. However, his story is not without controversy and complexities, making him a subject of both admiration and criticism.

Born on April 22, 1904, in New York City, Oppenheimer came from a family of intellectuals and was exposed to academic pursuits from an early age. He excelled in his studies and displayed a natural aptitude for mathematics and physics. After attending the Ethical Culture School and the Harvard School for Boys, Oppenheimer pursued higher education at Harvard University, where he earned his undergraduate degree in chemistry and continued to excel in physics.

Oppenheimer's academic journey led him to the University of GΓΆttingen in Germany and the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, where he worked with prominent physicists of the time, including Max Born and J. J. Thomson. Upon returning to the United States, he completed his Ph.D. at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and began to establish himself as a rising star in theoretical physics.

His scientific contributions during the 1930s were significant and garnered him recognition in the academic community. However, it was in the early 1940s that Oppenheimer's life took a decisive turn when the United States government approached him to lead the top-secret Manhattan Project. This ambitious wartime effort aimed to develop the first atomic bomb.

Oppenheimer, with his remarkable organizational and leadership skills, was appointed as the scientific director of the Los Alamos Laboratory, the central facility for the Manhattan Project. Under his guidance, the laboratory brought together some of the brightest scientific minds of the time, including Richard Feynman, Enrico Fermi, and Niels Bohr, among others. The collective efforts of these scientists led to the successful test of the first atomic bomb on July 16, 1945, in the New Mexico desert. The development of the atomic bomb forever altered the course of history and played a pivotal role in the end of World War II.

Despite his instrumental role in the success of the Manhattan Project, Oppenheimer's life took a turn for the worse in the post-war era. As the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union intensified, concerns about nuclear proliferation and espionage heightened. Oppenheimer's left-leaning political past and associations with some suspected Communist sympathizers raised suspicions about his loyalty to the nation.

In the early 1950s, during the era of McCarthyism and anti-communist sentiment, Oppenheimer's security clearance was revoked after a highly controversial hearing. His reputation was tarnished, and he was accused of being a security risk, leading to a significant setback in his career. The episode not only affected Oppenheimer personally but also left a mark on the scientific community, raising ethical questions about the role of scientists in the development and use of powerful technologies.

Despite the setback, Oppenheimer remained an influential figure in academia. He served as the Director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton from 1947 to 1966, where he continued to contribute to theoretical physics and astrophysics. He also played an active role in advocating for international control of nuclear weapons and pushed for peaceful uses of atomic energy.

Robert Oppenheimer passed away on February 18, 1967, leaving behind a complicated legacy. His contributions to science and the development of the atomic bomb were undeniably profound, but the ethical implications of his work continue to spark debate. Some view him as a visionary scientist who played a crucial role in the war effort and the advancement of science, while others criticize his involvement in creating a weapon of mass destruction and the subsequent devastation caused by its use.

In conclusion, Robert Oppenheimer was a brilliant physicist whose work had a profound impact on the course of history. His role in the development of the atomic bomb, while historically significant, remains a subject of ethical inquiry. He stands as a reminder of the complexities faced by scientists working in times of war and the responsibilities they bear in shaping the world through their discoveries. As we reflect on his life and work, it is essential to remember the lessons learned from history and strive for a peaceful and secure future for all.

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While observing the galaxy cluster Abell 1201, astronomers have discovered possibly the largest black hole known to date. It has a mass about 30 billion more than the sun. According to scientists, this is the upper limit of what size they can reach. reports the sensational discovery. Astronomers when observing the galaxy Abell 1201 used gravitational lensing, which allows you to see the bending of light by gravity around extremely massive objects. This led to the discovery of a new black hole.

The largest black hole in history

- This particular black hole, which is about 30 billion times the mass of our sun, is one of the largest ever detected and is at the upper limit of how large we think black holes can theoretically get, so it is is an extremely exciting discovery, said James Nightingale, an astrophysicist at Durham University in the UK and lead author of the new study, said in a statement.

Astronomers call these types of huge objects ultramassive black holes, as opposed to the usual galactic supermassive black holes, which weigh several million to several billion solar masses.

As points out, the team arrived at the size of the black hole by analyzing the magnification of the foreground object in a series of images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope.

Using advanced computer modeling, the researchers were able to simulate how much light bends around the foreground galaxy that hosts the black hole.

They tested thousands of black hole sizes before arriving at a solution that matched the observations.

The black hole, located in one of the galaxies in the Abell 1201 galaxy cluster, is the first one discovered using this technique.

Although it is huge, the black hole is not very active, which means it does not absorb much matter and therefore does not produce strong X-rays.

Such black holes are almost impossible to study by other methods.

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Octopuses are one of the most interesting, mysterious and intelligent creatures in the world. Here are 30 interesting facts about these amazing animals.

1. Octopuses have three hearts. One of them deals with pumping blood throughout the body. The other pumps blood through the gills. The third stops working when it floats. For this reason, octopuses get tired quickly and prefer to crawl.

2. About 300 species of octopus have been discovered so far.

3. A newborn octopus is the size of a flea.

4. The oldest octopus fossil discovered is 296 million years old.

5. Octopus wrestling was a popular sport in the 1960s. The competition was a fight between a diver and an octopus in shallow water. Even the world championships in this discipline were organized in the United States.

6. Live octopus is eaten in Korea. This "delicacy" is called sannakya.

7. Many countries have banned octopus surgery without anesthesia. This is related to the intelligence of these animals.

8. They don't have 8 arms, they have 6 arms and 2 legs.

9. Hapalochlaena is the most dangerous type of octopus. They can kill a person with one bite.

10. Octopuses prove that size doesn't matter. Their brain size is comparable to a walnut. They are considered the most intelligent invertebrates.

11. A hungry octopus is able to eat its own arms.

12. They live relatively short. Some species reach as little as six months. The largest ones can live for 5 years.

13. The mimetic octopus is able to resemble 15 other marine animals, such as snakes and stingrays. It was discovered in the mid-1980s by photographers.

14. They move with elegance, but unlike most animals, their movements have no rhythm.

15. The largest documented octopus weighed 71 kg.

16. Large octopuses are able to catch and kill some types of sharks.

17. Animals have chemoreceptors in their suckers. Thanks to them, they are able to feel the taste in the process touch. There are over 10,000 taste buds on the tentacles.

18. Due to the high amount of copper, the octopus' blood is blue.

19. The skin of an octopus can change its color 177 times an hour.

20. In 2008, an octopus with 96 tentacles was caught in Japan.

21. All octopus species are venomous to humans. Only one of them poses a deadly threat.

22. One way to defend against a threat is to blend in with your surroundings. Another ability is to change color or spray a black substance.

23. The largest species is the giant octopus. Its tentacles reach a length of up to 4 meters.

24. These animals are dioecious.

25. The octopus has no bones (the only hard part in their body is a parrot-like beak and a lump of cartilage surrounding the brain), so this allows them to pass through a hole that is 4 times smaller than their own size.

26. An octopus has rectangular pupils.

27. The octopus always keeps its "house" clean by "sweeping" it with a stream of water from its funnel and placing the rest of the food in a special place nearby.

28. Octopuses are intelligent invertebrates that can be trained, remember their owners, distinguish shapes.

29. The personal life of these sea creatures is not very happy. Males often fall prey to females, and they rarely survive postpartum and condemn their offspring to an orphaned life.

30. When the water temperature drops, octopuses adapt to it by changing their set of RNA and proteins produced in the cells of the nervous system.

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One of the most evocative space photos is the Hubble Ultra Deep Field image taken - as the name suggests - with the cameras installed on board the Hubble Space Telescope. This image shows a small patch of sky in the constellation of the Furnace. At first glance, the image looks like any other photograph of the night sky: there are plenty of stars visible against a black background, and it is difficult to find any known constellation or asterism in their arrangement. The approach to this photo changes dramatically when we realize that the objects visible in this photo are not stars. Each bright dot in this image is a separate galaxy. In this small patch of sky, Hubble was able to record as many as 10,000 galaxies that existed almost 13 billion years ago, almost at the very beginning of the universe. Well, now Hubble's successor, the James Webb Space Telescope has beaten its predecessor, and spectacularly.

In a study published a few days ago, scientists analyzing data from the James Webb Space Telescope announced that they managed to discover complex organic compounds in a galaxy that existed just over a billion years after the Big Bang, i.e. in the very early universe.

The latest flagship space telescope has decided to take a good look at a region of the sky known as GOODS-South. In the resulting image, James Webb was able to capture more than 45,000 galaxies.

Now scientists will analyze the image in detail, trying to extract information from it about how such large galaxies formed so quickly after the Big Bang? How fast were stars formed in them? Were any galaxies already appearing to age?

The initial analysis of the photo already brings the first conclusions. In almost every galaxy, scientists see signs of intense star formation. Massive, hot stars were rapidly forming within them. Is James Webb a revolution here? Astronomers indicate that before launching it into orbit, we knew about a dozen galaxies seen when the universe was less than 650 million years old. Now, a year and a half after the launch of the telescope, almost a thousand such galaxies are known. This is not an evolution of our knowledge, this is a revolution, and this is just the beginning of the work of this phenomenal instrument.

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More than half of the world's lakes are drying up. Every year, 22 billion tons of water are lost from reservoirs, according to the latest study published in the journal "Science". According to scientists, the climate crisis and overconsumption are to blame for this situation.The latest survey shows that 53% of of the world's large lakes has shrunk since the 1990s. Some of the world's most important freshwater sources lose an average of 22 billion tons of water each year. That's as much as the total water consumption in the US in 2015.

Researchers have analyzed climatic and hydrological data from the observation of almost 2,000 large lakes. In total, 250,000 people were tested. satellite photos from 1992-2020.

Lake Mead state 2001-2022. /NASA/

It turned out that water was declining even in humid regions that had not been threatened by drought so far.

The trend of drying lakes around the world is wider than previously thought. It shouldn't be overlooked, said lead author of the international study, Fangfang Yao of the University of Colorado at Boulder, in an interview with CNN.

The biggest cause of drying up lakes is harmful human activity. Scientists point out that overuse of water has led to the shrinking of bodies of water such as the Aral Sea in Central Asia and the Salton Sea in the US.

Drought exacerbated by climate change is threatening lakes in Afghanistan, Egypt and Mongolia. The same is true of Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. Global warming is also affecting the Caspian Sea, which lies between Asia and Europe. It is the world's largest inland body of water.

Scientists estimate that almost 2 billion people in the world are directly affected by water shortages.

The already difficult situation will be aggravated by progressive global warming. The latest report by the World Meteorological Organization shows that within 4 years of the year humanity may pass another tipping point related to climate change. According to scientists, there are 66 percent. the probability that the Earth's global temperature will increase by 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2027 compared to pre-industrial times. This has far-reaching consequences for health, food security and water management around the world.

Lakes occupy 3 percent. surface of the Earth and are the source of 90% of fresh surface water.

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The cradle of human civilization is a term used to refer to the regions where the earliest human societies developed and flourished. These regions are known for their rich history, ancient cultures, and contributions to the modern world. The cradle of human civilization includes several regions, each with its unique history and cultural heritage.

One of the most prominent regions in the cradle of human civilization is the Fertile Crescent, which is located in modern-day Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. The Fertile Crescent is considered to be the birthplace of agriculture, which was a significant development in the history of human civilization. The fertile soil of the region allowed humans to grow crops and raise livestock, which helped to support larger populations and laid the foundation for urbanization.

Another important region in the cradle of human civilization is the Indus Valley, located in modern-day Pakistan and India. The Indus Valley civilization was one of the earliest and most advanced civilizations in the world. The people of the Indus Valley developed a sophisticated system of urban planning, sanitation, and irrigation that was unmatched in the ancient world.

Egypt is another region that is considered to be a part of the cradle of human civilization. The ancient Egyptians developed a complex society that included a sophisticated system of writing, mathematics, and engineering. They also built monumental structures such as the pyramids, which are still a marvel of engineering today.

China is also an important region in the cradle of human civilization. The ancient Chinese civilization developed a system of writing, a legal code, and a complex philosophical tradition that had a profound impact on the world. Chinese inventions such as paper, the compass, and gunpowder changed the course of history and helped to shape the modern world.

The cradle of human civilization is not limited to these regions, and there are many other areas where ancient societies developed and thrived. The Maya civilization in Central America, the ancient Greeks, and the Roman Empire are just a few examples of other civilizations that contributed to the development of human culture. Is a testament to the ingenuity, creativity, and resilience of human beings. It is a reminder that our history is rich and complex and that we have much to learn from the civilizations that came before us. By studying the past, we can gain a better understanding of ourselves and the world we live in, and use that knowledge to shape a better future for all.

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Human DNA, numbering about 20 thousand. years, were taken from the pendant, specifically - a deer tooth, which served as a pendant. It was found in the Denisova Cave in Siberia. Scientists from an international team used an innovative non-invasive method of obtaining a sample of genetic material.

Former ornaments made of animal bones or teeth are promising in terms of obtaining DNA samples. Their porous structure allows human body fluids, such as sweat, blood or saliva, to penetrate and settle there. By the way, human DNA is also deposited with them.

Scientists have developed a non-invasive method that allows DNA to be extracted from such objects without damaging them. It involves dipping them in a sodium phosphate solution and then slowly heating them up. In this way, DNA molecules that were previously trapped there, getting with blood, sweat or saliva, are washed out of such ornaments or other objects.

Scientists were able to get the DNA of the wapiti deer, which the tooth belonged to, and human DNA. It turned out to be the DNA of the woman who most likely owned the pendant.

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Plants have been used for centuries as decorative elements in homes, offices, and public spaces. But did you know that some plants can also purify the air and have a positive effect on our health and well-being? In this short article, we will discuss some of the most effective air-purifying plants and their benefits for humans.

  1. Snake Plant (Sansevieria trifasciata): Also known as "mother-in-law's tongue," the snake plant is a popular houseplant that is easy to care for and can remove toxins such as benzene, formaldehyde, and xylene from the air. It also releases oxygen at night, making it a great choice for bedrooms.
  2. Spider Plant (Chlorophytum comosum): The spider plant is a fast-growing and low-maintenance plant that can remove formaldehyde and xylene from the air. It is also known to improve indoor humidity levels, which can help reduce dry skin, sore throat, and other respiratory problems.
  3. Peace Lily (Spathiphyllum): The peace lily is a beautiful and easy-to-grow plant that can remove formaldehyde, benzene, and trichloroethylene from the air. It is also known to improve air quality by absorbing mold spores and other allergens.
  4. Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis): The aloe vera plant is not only great for healing burns and cuts, but it can also remove formaldehyde from the air. It is also known to release oxygen at night, making it a great choice for bedrooms.
  5. Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum): The golden pothos is a low-maintenance plant that can remove formaldehyde, benzene, and carbon monoxide from the air. It is also known to improve indoor air quality by absorbing mold spores and other allergens.

These are just a few examples of the many air-purifying plants available. In addition to their air-purifying benefits, plants have also been shown to have a positive effect on our mental health and well-being. Studies have shown that being around plants can reduce stress and anxiety, improve mood and productivity, and even lower blood pressure and heart rate.

So, whether you are looking to improve the air quality in your home or office, or simply want to add a touch of nature to your living space, consider investing in some air-purifying plants. Not only will they help purify the air and improve your health, but they will also add beauty and a sense of calm to your surroundings.

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The system developed at the University of Texas in Austin (USA) - an artificial intelligence connected to an MRI scanner read the thoughts of volunteers. For now, it still makes mistakes, but in the future, similar devices could help people who are unable to communicate normally.

During the experiment, volunteers listened to a story or imagined telling it. Their brains were observed with the help of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the artificial intelligence connected to it turned people's thoughts into text consistent with them. Importantly, no electrodes were needed to be implanted in the brain, and the person using the invention was not limited to a predetermined list of words, the researchers emphasize. However, the system requires special training - each person using it listens to podcasts for several hours, during which the computer watches his brain. "For non-invasive methods, this is a real leap forward compared to what was previously achieved, i.e. usually reading single words or short sentences" - says Prof. Alex Huth, author of the paper, which appeared in the journal "Nature Neuroscience". "Our model decodes long-term, continuous speech on complex topics," he emphasizes.

For now, the computer is not very accurate - it reads thoughts quite precisely in about 50 percent. However, he can often convey the meaning of the utterance. For example, he translated the thought, "I don't have a driving license yet," into "she hasn't started learning to drive yet." Listening to the thought, "I didn't know whether to scream, cry, or run away," he read as "She started screaming and crying and then she said 'I told you to leave me." The system was also good at reading the minds of the volunteers when they watched the videos. The creators of the program also addressed the topic of its possible abuses. They assure that at least currently it is impossible to read someone's mind if the person does not want to. It is also impossible to do it with someone with whom the system has not undergone a long training. β€œWe take concerns about abuse very seriously and are working to prevent them. We want to make sure that people use these technologies when they want to, and that it helps them," said Jerry Tang, who led the research. Scientists hope that their idea will allow for the construction of devices that will allow people currently unable to communicate with the world, e.g. after severe strokes. The current version of the system only allows for its use in the laboratory, but according to the researchers, this can be changed - for example, instead of a large MRI scanner, it is likely that a much smaller device designed for non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy can also be used.


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