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While many regions experience the ebb and flow of seasonal temperatures, there are countries in the world where the cold is a constant companion. These lands of eternal frost, with their frigid climates and icy landscapes, offer a unique perspective on life, nature, and resilience. Let's embark on a journey to explore countries where the cold never relents, shaping the daily lives and cultures of their inhabitants.

  • Greenland:

Nestled in the North Atlantic, Greenland is the world's largest island and is known for its vast ice sheets and Arctic tundra. With temperatures often hovering well below freezing, Greenland provides a stunning tableau of icebergs, glaciers, and frozen fjords. The indigenous Inuit communities have adapted to the harsh conditions, relying on hunting and fishing for sustenance.

  • Antarctica:

While not a country in the traditional sense, Antarctica is a continent where cold is a constant, shaping the world's most inhospitable environment. In this frozen wilderness, temperatures can plummet to extreme lows, and the landscape is dominated by vast ice shelves and towering glaciers. Scientific research stations dot the continent, offering a glimpse into the extreme conditions endured by those who study its unique ecosystem.

  • Iceland:

Situated in the North Atlantic, Iceland experiences a consistently cool climate due to its high latitude. The country is known for its otherworldly landscapes, including geysers, waterfalls, and volcanic terrain. Despite its proximity to the Arctic Circle, Iceland benefits from the warming influence of the Gulf Stream, making its winters milder than one might expect.

  • Svalbard, Norway:

Located in the Arctic Ocean, Svalbard is an archipelago under Norwegian sovereignty. The islands are characterized by polar desert landscapes, with glaciers, fjords, and an abundance of wildlife. The extreme cold poses challenges for its small population, and residents must adapt to months of perpetual darkness during the polar night.

  • Siberia, Russia:

Siberia is a vast region in Russia that spans much of northern Asia. Known for its extreme cold, Siberia experiences long, harsh winters with temperatures dropping significantly below freezing. The vast expanses of taiga, tundra, and frozen lakes create a challenging environment for those who call this remote region home.

  • Nunavut, Canada:

As the northernmost territory in Canada, Nunavut experiences an Arctic climate characterized by long, cold winters. The territory is home to various Inuit communities, and traditional practices such as ice fishing and dog sledding are integral parts of daily life. The unique wildlife and stunning landscapes of Nunavut contribute to its allure, despite the formidable climate.

In these lands of perpetual cold, the constant chill becomes more than just a weather pattern; it shapes the way of life, influences cultural practices, and fosters a deep connection between the inhabitants and their environments. From the frozen expanses of Greenland to the polar deserts of Svalbard, these countries and regions offer a glimpse into the enduring resilience of communities that have adapted to the unyielding embrace of the cold.

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Human DNA, numbering about 20 thousand. years, were taken from the pendant, specifically - a deer tooth, which served as a pendant. It was found in the Denisova Cave in Siberia. Scientists from an international team used an innovative non-invasive method of obtaining a sample of genetic material.

Former ornaments made of animal bones or teeth are promising in terms of obtaining DNA samples. Their porous structure allows human body fluids, such as sweat, blood or saliva, to penetrate and settle there. By the way, human DNA is also deposited with them.

Scientists have developed a non-invasive method that allows DNA to be extracted from such objects without damaging them. It involves dipping them in a sodium phosphate solution and then slowly heating them up. In this way, DNA molecules that were previously trapped there, getting with blood, sweat or saliva, are washed out of such ornaments or other objects.

Scientists were able to get the DNA of the wapiti deer, which the tooth belonged to, and human DNA. It turned out to be the DNA of the woman who most likely owned the pendant.

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