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The internet, a global network that has fundamentally reshaped the way we live, work, and communicate, has a relatively short history. But within this digital realm, there exist websites that can be considered ancient in internet terms. These websites not only offer a glimpse into the early days of the World Wide Web but also remind us of the rapid evolution of technology. Let's take a journey through cyberspace as we explore the five oldest websites in history.

  • CERN - The First Website

In the late 20th century, a team at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, led by Tim Berners-Lee, developed the World Wide Web. The first website ever created was dedicated to explaining the World Wide Web concept itself. This website went live in 1991 and was hosted on Berners-Lee's NeXT computer. It featured a simple explanation of how to set up a web server and how to access the earliest web pages. Today, this piece of internet history is available at its original URL, allowing you to see how the first website looked.

  • Gopher - The Gopher Project

While the World Wide Web quickly overshadowed the Gopher protocol, Gopher was a significant player in the early days of the internet. Developed in 1991 by Mark P. McCahill at the University of Minnesota, the Gopher Project aimed to create an organized and user-friendly way to access information. Gopher's simplicity made it popular, and at its peak, it was considered a serious rival to the World Wide Web. You can still explore the Gopher protocol today on the Internet, showcasing the history of online information retrieval.

  • The WWW Virtual Library

Before search engines like Google made finding information on the web effortless, the WWW Virtual Library played a crucial role in organizing web content. Created in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee himself, this site was a directory of various subject areas, all curated by volunteers. It was one of the earliest attempts to categorize and organize the growing expanse of information on the internet. Although it's no longer as prominent as it once was, the Virtual Library remains accessible, offering a fascinating snapshot of the internet's early days.

  • The Internet Movie Database (IMDb)

IMDb, the internet's go-to source for movie and television information, was founded in 1990 by Col Needham. It started as a collection of movie lists on Usenet before evolving into a full-fledged website in 1993. IMDb allowed movie enthusiasts to search for information about films, actors, and directors well before online databases became the norm. Today, it stands as one of the most popular websites for movie and TV enthusiasts.

  • The British Monarchy Website

The British Monarchy's official website made its online debut in 1994, becoming one of the earliest examples of a government or institution establishing an online presence. The site provided information about the British Royal Family, its history, and current events. Over the years, it has evolved to include multimedia content, live streaming, and a comprehensive archive of royal-related information.

The internet has come a long way since its inception, and these five websites represent a historical journey through cyberspace. From the birth of the World Wide Web at CERN to the pioneering days of Gopher and the early attempts at organizing online information, these websites have paved the way for the digital age we now take for granted. Exploring these virtual time capsules allows us to appreciate how far we've come in the realm of online communication and information sharing. While these websites may not be as flashy or dynamic as contemporary sites, they are valuable reminders of the internet's humble beginnings.

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The system developed at the University of Texas in Austin (USA) - an artificial intelligence connected to an MRI scanner read the thoughts of volunteers. For now, it still makes mistakes, but in the future, similar devices could help people who are unable to communicate normally.

During the experiment, volunteers listened to a story or imagined telling it. Their brains were observed with the help of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the artificial intelligence connected to it turned people's thoughts into text consistent with them. Importantly, no electrodes were needed to be implanted in the brain, and the person using the invention was not limited to a predetermined list of words, the researchers emphasize. However, the system requires special training - each person using it listens to podcasts for several hours, during which the computer watches his brain. "For non-invasive methods, this is a real leap forward compared to what was previously achieved, i.e. usually reading single words or short sentences" - says Prof. Alex Huth, author of the paper, which appeared in the journal "Nature Neuroscience". "Our model decodes long-term, continuous speech on complex topics," he emphasizes.

For now, the computer is not very accurate - it reads thoughts quite precisely in about 50 percent. However, he can often convey the meaning of the utterance. For example, he translated the thought, "I don't have a driving license yet," into "she hasn't started learning to drive yet." Listening to the thought, "I didn't know whether to scream, cry, or run away," he read as "She started screaming and crying and then she said 'I told you to leave me." The system was also good at reading the minds of the volunteers when they watched the videos. The creators of the program also addressed the topic of its possible abuses. They assure that at least currently it is impossible to read someone's mind if the person does not want to. It is also impossible to do it with someone with whom the system has not undergone a long training. “We take concerns about abuse very seriously and are working to prevent them. We want to make sure that people use these technologies when they want to, and that it helps them," said Jerry Tang, who led the research. Scientists hope that their idea will allow for the construction of devices that will allow people currently unable to communicate with the world, e.g. after severe strokes. The current version of the system only allows for its use in the laboratory, but according to the researchers, this can be changed - for example, instead of a large MRI scanner, it is likely that a much smaller device designed for non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy can also be used.



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After three years, the German coronavirus warning app stops warning users about exposure to infection. It is not even known how effective this application was.

According to former German chancellor Angela Merkel, the application was supposed to be a milestone in the fight against coronavirus.

Three years have passed, all pandemic restrictions have been lifted, and the most important feature of the application has just been disabled: warnings after contact with a person infected with Covid-19.

"It makes no sense (to keep alerts) with the low incidence we have now," said German Health Minister Karl Lauterbach. He added that Covid-19 is no longer so severe also due to the high immunity of the population.

On June 1, the coronavirus alert app will go into sleep mode. This means it will no longer be updated and will also disappear from the Google and Apple app stores. However, users can keep the app on their mobile phone if, for example, they have saved their vaccination certificates there and want to continue using them. Lauterbach also urged users to keep the app in case of another Covid-19 outbreak - or even a pandemic. - It may be that we need to reuse it for Covid-19. But it may also happen that we develop it further for other infectious diseases,' he said.

According to the German Ministry of Health, since its launch almost three years ago, the app has been downloaded a total of 48 million times. However, it is impossible to say how many people actively used it. Obtaining accurate statistics is not possible because the data from the application was only stored locally on the mobile phone for data protection reasons.

The German Ministry of Health is to investigate how effective the application was. The app cost the government €220 million – much more than originally planned.

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In China school children are made to wear wristbands that measure their involvement in lessons and whether they are focused. This data is sent directly to the parents. Is this what awaits us in the near future?

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